Business Intelligence in Healthcare | healthcare

The main goal of each Healthcare Institution in a highly controlled & competitive environment, is to reduce operating costs while maintaining a consistently acceptable level of patient treatment. Reduce operating costs at all levels:
Cost of healthcare Professionals
Cost of lab equipment & consumables
Cost of pharmaceuticals / medical material
Cost of a treatment per Diagnosis related grouping (DRG)
Cost per type of medical intervention (e.g. specific medical operation)
On the other hand, an acceptable level of patient treatment involves:
Evidence based medicine, accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment
On time admittance in the Hospital and healthcare treatment
Treatment with respect for the Patient- analysis of options
Reduction of risks during treatment (e.g. related to the use of medicine, biomedical equipment, blood transfusions)
Capture of medical history of the patient in order to support evidence based medicine
Moreover, goals of each Healthcare Institution are:
Reduction of medical errors and exposure of the patient to medical hazards (e.g. inappropriate levels of radiation)
Support medical research with patient & treatment data
Participate and support a larger Healthcare system, with the exchange of medical information on a patient, as well as statistics on population morbidity & mortality.
In Private Healthcare, the excellent Patient service is critical to Customer retention & loyalty and business growth. In order to achieve these goals, each modern Healthcare system aims to enhance its Organisational capability with the introduction of standard business processes, standard healthcare treatment based on standardized healthcare interventions. Medical information management is supported by the introduction of information systems aligned to the standardized processes as well as the introduction of classifications or codifications of certain information types like diseases (based on ICD), medical interventions, lab exams, biomedical equipment & consumables. Hospital information systems (HIS) are used to capture and process all information related to the administrative as well as the medical aspects of a patient event. A patient record is created which stores all the patient history, structured per event. A datamart monitoring the inpatient and outpatient service could be based on data retrieved from the HIS database. In a dimensional model it would store the dimensions involved in the service: Patient, Date, Healthcare Unit and Department, exit DRG (diagnosis related grouping) group, Diagnosis (based on ICD), Medical intervention based on selected codification, pharmaceutical treatment, medical material used, and capture all cost related facts in the fact table. The star schema captures information related to an inpatient event, which normally may last few days. In order to capture the whole lifecycle of the event, an accumulating snapshot fact table is used, as shown in the figure (check link below). Based on this star schema, a wide range of analytical tasks can be carried out. Analysis related to medical treatment of a specific event (indicatively):
Produce a medical history report on a patient
Produce stats on morbidity by restricting on specific ICD codes (e.g. frequency of an ICD as a percentage of total events, ICD related to demographic info like age or educational level)
Analyse the relation of medical interventions to ICD & DRGs, by restricting on specific DRGs
Mortal events per ICD / DRG (this can be coded in a specific Exit_diagnosis value)
Analysis related to cost incurred by a specific event (indicatively):
Analysis on the average length of stay (ALOS) per DRG as well as per Patient demographics.
Analysis on the medical material & consumables cost related to a medical intervention
Analysis on the medical material & consumables cost related to an event of specific DRG
Analysis on the pharmaceutical cost related to an event of specific DRG
Delays in payment and collection levels
Department related analysis:
Number of treatment events / medical interventions per Department
comparison of same specialty Departments
The star schema could also capture the involvement and performance of medical Professionals. In addition it could capture many more facts related to the event like manhours spent by the Doctor in charge, by the other professionals involved. The datamart can be linked to the datamart of another Hospital or Healthcare system, if the two use conformed dimensions and facts. Standardized codifications (like ICD) aim at achieving this conformance, in order to be able to consolidate information at the regional, national and international level. Why develop the star schema, instead of querying directly the Hospital Information System database. For two important reasons:
The star schema model is easily understandable by the Business Analyst
The analysis on the star schema is computationally more efficient (the symmetric structure’s simplicity allows for better query optimization)
Moreover the star schema incorporates enriched information at the dimensions as well as derived facts on the fact table (cost, duration). This additional information is produced and appended in the datamart staging area. Business intelligence infrastructures, like the one presented above can facilitate the analysis and continuous improvement in a Healthcare system.

How to Care For Your Loved One’s Memorial | Beauty care

Headstones and other memorials, though symbolizing the passing of loved ones, can still be a thing of beauty. Caring for those markers is an important consideration. Headstones constructed of marble, granite or bronze and concrete stand out against the green of cemetery landscaping. They are smooth and beautiful at placement and can easily be maintained so that they stay that way forever. The very first tip to caring for the headstone is to choose one that is constructed from a durable material. Remember, this material will be subjected to every weather condition the area dictates; the elements both of sky and of earth can be hard on any material, even natural material. It would be wrong to assume that a headstone made from natural material could withstand the forces of nature without help.The second step, after having chosen a durable material, would be to make sure that you keep that material clean. If the headstone is composed of marble or granite, occasionally clean it with a fifty percent bleach solution. Spread the solution with a paper towel and let it sit for approximately thirty minutes, then wash it away with plain water. If the headstone is bronze in nature, you’ll want to be sure that you purchase one that has the correct percentage of metals in order to provide a strong, lasting finish. There are cleaning kits available specifically for caring for bronze headstones.In all cases, a good tribute to your loved one is to make sure that the headstone stays free of dirt, rust, mildew, or acid trapped within the stone. Caring for your loved one’s grave site means never letting these things happen and if they do, taking care of the problem as soon as possible. If you haven’t visited your loved one’s grave site lately, it may do you some good as well as the site. It can feel good to care for the site and the marker that sits atop it.Recently, a cottage growth industry has formed and started to grow around the care and restoration of family headstones. There are whole teams of individuals busily working to restore headstones from the 17th through the 19th century. Caring for and restoring these headstones is a bit trickier than caring for modern day headstones because they were made of materials such as slate and sandstone. Both easily worked materials but also easily damaged by the elements due to their malleable nature. This means that as time goes on, the surface of the stone can wear away, making the words fade and blur together.Caring for your loved ones’ headstones is important, not only for your sake, but also for those of your future family. Some time in the future, when a relative looks back to find his or her roots, this headstone may be the only link that allows them to find their way back through their history to the roots of the family.

Web Design and the World’s Largest Pen Knife | web design and development

In the 2008 edition, Guinness Book of World Records will present the penknife with the most functions ever presented. This new life has 87 different tools and performs more than 100 functions. The knife’s case is almost nine inches long by four inches wide and weighs about three pounds. As of this writing about 500 of the $1,200 Swiss made knives have been sold.Web design is a bit like that Swiss Army knife. A properly developed website is compact and utilitarian. Your website can provide customers with multiple tools in a compact understandable design. The key will be to make sure access to the tools is simple and logical. Too many websites make the process more difficult than it needs to be and inadvertently repel potential online consumers who just don’t want to spend the time to figure it out.I remember camping with family and friends and a Swiss Army knife was used to trim small debris from around the tents. Scissors were used to trim excess string and certain types of rope. The knife served many purposes and was routinely called upon to solve a variety of problems and most of the time it did. One knife I owned even had a small pen that could be used in an emergency.Work at developing a site that solves problems instead of creating them. Think about the logical steps your customer base will use to locate items and search for data. The tools you provide your customers with will be the tools that may ultimately sell your product.Web builder technology can be as useful to website design as Swiss Army is to knives. Because the software was designed from the best of current web designs it can provide as many tools as that world record knife.In most cases web builder software can provide significantly more tools for both customers and website owner than more expensive web design solutions.When you compare features you may be able to upgrade from a proverbial penknife to a much larger utility knife in website design. Unlike most of life’s options you really can do more with less. More website tools and possibilities for less money.The growth of this sector of web design is important in that it dares to challenge the notion that only individual web designers are capable of completing a web design that can manage the needs of the individual business.Perhaps the biggest reason many businesses do not look into web builder software has to do with a fear that they would never be able to develop the site on their own, no matter how many tools were available to them.The truth is the actual building of the website is not significantly harder than developing a social networking site. It is fully explained online and customer support is available. In some cases you can hire a designer to work with you to develop the site if you are really unsure as to your abilities or if you simply do not wish to develop the site. In the end it is still an extremely cost effective solution to your web design needs.


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